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VIRTUALLY INDIA

Spaces of Possibility in New Media Aesthetics

Penny Leong Browne
Graduate Candidate,
School of Interactive Arts and Technology, Simon Fraser University
Emily Carr University
Vancouver, Canada
pennybrownesimulexcom

TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. Introduction

Artists in India are using new media technologies to create spaces of possibility, both spatially and temporally, for dislocated and a-historical narratives of place and identity to occur.


In this paper I will begin with a discussion of the current cultural-historical context in which artists in India live and work, proposing that they are in a strategic position to interrogate hegemonic systems both within their own country as well as in the international sphere, through the use of new media technologies. I will also discuss the debates and consequences of the postcolonial realities that artists in India face, out of which I argue a crisis of aesthetics has come about. I will then proceed to talk about how the positioning of digital media as a marginal art form may offer opportunities for artists to resolve this crisis and subsequently, what is at stake for artists in India working in new media.


I will then delve into how new media narrative forms can offer ways for artists in India to intervene and interrogate hegemonic categories of knowledge and culture. I will first present an analysis of the process and structure of what underlies new media narrative forms, what I identify as the "operational metaphor" of data, examining the cultural hacking through the manipulation of screen aesthetics, architecture, navigation flow and interpretation of data to create data narratives or meta-narratives. Here, I also relate the aesthetic and structure of new media to the ideas of Leo Steinberg towards the orientation of the picture plane and Gilles Deleuze ideas towards cinema.


I will conclude with an analysis of three case studies. Two of the three works I have selected to examine are Mythic Hybrid (Prema Murthy, 2002) and Global Village Health Manual (Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective, 2000) – both of which employ computer functions such as hypertext, linking and searching to produce user-generated narratives that exist only in the deterritorialized zones of immateriality, told and retold as they are through the virtual space of the Internet.


The third work featured in this essay is Co-ordinates 28.8N 77.15E (Raqs New Media Collective, 2002), which contrasts to the previous works in that it is experienced within the immersive space of a gallery rather than through the Internet on one's personal computer. In this work, the remediation and simulation of the real through digital imagery generate an imaginary that I consider a no-place and no-time of the city of Delhi.


Through these new media technologies, artists are deploying strategies of interrogation and intervention into conventional and historical modes of cultural production and identity representation within India.


What these three works share in common is how they produce a complex mash of signs and semiotics that interject the mass-commodification and globalization of postcolonialist cultures endemic of international art aesthetics and economies.

They also reformulate identity and place in such a way that no longer has a temporal or spatial contingency to the real. With this severing from physical and temporal space, I also believe there is no contingency on what has happened before, which I believe have the potential of liberating new media artists from the albatross of history.


Without history ... anything is possible.



II. Place and Identity in India


To consider what is at stake for Indian artists who are wishing to carve out spaces of possibility within new media, I believe it is essential to consider the postcolonial cultural-historical context in which they live and work.


Postcolonial nations such as India are in a strategic position to explore the new spaces of possibility offered by the Internet and other new media technologies. From a historical and ontological viewpoint, new media technologies may offer a way out of the Western hegemonic institutions that either place Indian artists within an objectified 'other' position through exclusionary practices or conversely, through endorsement leading to recognition, what Rasheed Araeen, editor of Third Text, a leading scholarly journal investigating postcolonial theory and identity politics within art and visual culture, considers a "red herring" which conceals what is at stake: that is, a mainstream Eurocentric structure of art history and discourse that remains unchallenged within museum and academic practices in the contemporary art field. (1)


What the Internet with its related media technologies offers is a way to subvert the dominant cultural discourse in order to investigate new strategies and contexts in which to cultivate new forms of narrative that tell different stories than ones that have been previously told. Although new media art has since gained recognition in museums and galleries as a legitimate art form, it still operates largely on the margins of the established art system. Much of this has to do with the fact that new media art, for instance, net art, is customarily not for sale so therefore does not enter the globalized art market which museums operate and flourish in. This is a double-edged sword for all artists who experiment with new technologies in their work. While non-conventional mediums offer liberated modes of production so that artists can experiment with ideas that may otherwise not find their place within a mainstream discourse, they may also hinder artists from participating in the established contemporary art field.


While I acknowledge this as a risk for all artists who work with new media technologies, I believe that within these spaces of possibility, singular explorations of identity and place can be achieved, and may in time, if not already, lead to greater agency for artists.


I see new media artists positioning themselves similarly to the way Third Text positions itself editorially. As Araeen describes: "Third Text represents a shift away from the centre of the dominant culture to its periphery in order to consider the centre critically. This does not imply a fixed distance. The movement can be repeated or reversed as long as a critical relationship is maintained." (2)


I consider this statement to be extremely valuable for artists in India, not only those who work in new media, but Indian artists in general, who are faced with the challenge of locating a place of agency within mainstream contemporary art discourse. For new media artists operating within the context of India's art history and current status as an emerging art market, this challenge is especially acute.


Artists from post-colonialist nations such as India currently face opposing, possibly negating forces; on the one hand, a post-colonial aesthetic that demands "authentic" representations of identity in order to "claim a national identity against Western hegemony" (3), and on the other hand, the globalization of style, ideology, and economies endemic of contemporary culture that seeks the "semantic value" of the "spectacle of contemporary India" (4); this in effect, results in exclusion of work that neither fits within the nationalist, post-colonial agenda operating within India, or the mass-commodified market of international art aesthetics and economies.


The negating consequence of this cultural-political insolvency between postcolonial and contemporary ethics is what I believe has produced a crisis of aesthetics, resulting in a semiotic paralysis within cultural modes of production and representation. Responding partly to this crisis, I believe, are new media artists in India who are locating spaces of possibility through Internet based works and installation art using digital video, sound and other immersive mediums to create virtual environments within physical spaces. Furthermore, the digital medium formulated through data offers potential resolutions to this crisis of aesthetics by forging new signs and semiotic relationships in visual and textual narrative.



III. The Operational Metaphor of Data


What underlies the foundation of these spaces of possibility, is the articulation of new forms of visual language on a digital interface, be it a projection screen or that of an interactive computer screen, to present an experience or narrative that does not so much rely upon metaphor or symbolic content, but rather in the manipulation and exposure of data architecture and processing. In a reverse-mirroring, the strategies that new media artists employ to expose and manipulate data then attain metaphoric value in the way we 'see' narrative. To further explain what I mean, I like to apply to new media narrative what Leo Steinberg wrote in his classic essay, “Other Criteria”, to describe the distinction between previous pictorial based painting to that of Modern painting as a change of orientation of the surface. He describes that the orientation is no longer towards "the analog of a visual experience of nature" but rather to that of "operational processes". (5) I believe Steinberg's "operational processes" in painting, are also evidently at work within digital media that re-orients the viewer/participant through a new interface aesthetic comprised of visual narratives that are multi-linear, rhizomatic, user-generated and multi-subjective. This reorientation towards the digital screen is mutable, dynamic and mobile, created out of the immateriality of cyberspace made up of computer databases, virtual geographies and architectures.


Data and its configuration and processing in new media can then be seen as a metaphor of how new media artists can interrogate dominant ontological systems.


What I call the "operational metaphor" becomes then like a virus wreaking havoc through a computer's hardware system, resulting in a corruption of directory files or in this case, the linear narrative structures of dominant discourse, so that the very indexing and categorizations of ontology no longer are viable, corrupted and no longer readable. However, unlike a user facing corrupted computer files, the task of the new media artist is not to recover but to leave the files corrupted yet recoverable enough to be readable. So it follows then, that the hardware (human subjects) must remain intact, and to a less extent, its directory system (the containers of data) albeit in a much less viable and stable state. Only the software and data, in other words, the language as interpretive agent and information as content are left intact however without the architecture in place. Structureless, the software and data of culture becomes a free for all, one can say, like source code in which to hack at will.


This hacking of knowledge comprises the central activity of the central processing unit of new media cultural production. Hacking in various dictionaries is defined as computer sabotage, to steal data with unauthorized entrance, as a hacking away at the bits and bytes of data, writing the source code of a program usually as a programming code to solve a problem in a hurry, low-level programming language instead of a high-level macro language (6) that conforms to the original code language. In order for a hacker to do any of this subversive activity, he or she must first expose the software. I see new media artists as cultural hackers, hacking away at the bits and bytes of cultural data, exposing the architecture of language, be it textual or visual.


What results, then, are new forms of narrative that are not the logical, linear constructs of structuralist, deterministic knowledge that make up postcolonial identity and place. Put another way, they are not the neat packages of cultural imagination, memory or even selected facts that make up postcolonial narratives that to this day are perpetuated by Western institutional and academic led forces of internationalism and neo-liberalist politics that prevail in the global art market. Rather the stories told by new media artists resist containment, are prone to seepage, elastic and fluid data flow of visual language that are guided not by the creative powers of one (i.e.: the state, institution, agency), but by the collaborative imagination and cognition of many (i.e.: multiple subjectivities). As new media theorist Christiane Paul writes in her essay, "The Database as System and Cultural Form: Anatomies of Cultural Narratives", "the aesthetics of a database are inherently relational..." and "suggest the possibilities of tracing process - individual, cultural, communicative - in its various forms. (7)


As with Modernist painters exposing the material processes of the pictorial language, so too are new media artists exposing the computational processes and archiving of data behind the digital screen. In this way, new media artists are constructing works that present various ways of archiving, filtering, searching and accessing cultural data that challenge conventional categorization of knowledge. In this sense, I see the role and work of new media artists of Third World nations such as those in India particularly compelling, as they are using the digital processes of cultural production to reinvent a history that they themselves can own and possess agency over. Like Leo Steinberg's Modernist painters, new media artists are taking part of "a shakeup, which contaminates all purified categories." (8)


It's not only through the reorientation towards data, but the fluid nature of the digital medium that contributes to the corruption and dissolving of categories. I liken the digital medium to the way Gilles Deleuze describes the image in cinema as rather than being a "unified or closed whole" is instead "an ensemble or set of logical relations that are in a state of continual transformation. (9)


I also think that Deleuze's philosophical ideas surrounding cinema and time can be applied towards how new media narratives are formulated and navigated through by the spectator/viewer. For instance, his concept of the "irrational divisions" making up the cinema image has enormous relevance to the way net art through navigation and interactive web tools (like Flash) produces visual and textual montages of cultural mash-ups. Deleuze summarizes the way "irrational divisions" make meaning like this: "... there is no longer linkage of associated images, but only relinkables of independent images. Instead of one after the other, there is one image plus another; and each shot is deframed in relation to the framing of the following shot..." (10) For new media narrative forms (i.e.: websites as art form or net art) the screens of the computer are what the frames are to the cinema and are relational in nature, producing cultural mash-ups that make up stories that have never been told before. However, distinct from cinema, new media narratives cannot tell the same story the same way twice, as they are constantly forming and reforming according to a participant's own navigation through the site.


Deleuze's thinking of cinema as an "artificial intelligence" or as David Norman Rodowick writes in his book, Gilles Deleuze's Time Machine (1997), as "a machine for the fabrication of concepts" can also be applied to the collusion in new media of software and the hardware components with data in producing one-off ontologies. (11) I see these prototypical units of cultural production as experienced through the digital screen directly relates to what Deleuze describes as a new way to think through the image. As Rogonick writes about Deleuze's stake in his philosophical theorizing of cinema: "For Deleuze this is the most compelling gambit of writing a history of "cinematic" philosophy: to take an era's strategies of thinking-through, represented aesthetically in the nature of its images and signs, and render them in the form of philosophical concepts. But also for the philosophy to understand how the possibilities of thought are renewed in aesthetic practices. " (12)


Furthermore, Deleuze's ideas concept of the cinematic image as a series of moving frames that can be manipulated through visual, sound, affective, rhythmic, and even verbal elements can easily be transferred to describing the digital image that includes interface art works (i.e.: interactive computer screens), digital video installations using computation, or net art. The distinguishing difference is that the sequence of the moving image in new media is not fixed by the singular subject of a creator/director making cuts, but fluctuates, manipulated into form by the navigation of the participant/spectator through virtual space. For example in net art, through a participant's navigation by way of click-throughs and links, or in immersive installations, by way of a participant navigating through the exhibition's space, directing 'cuts' and transitions according to haptic and bodily perspectives.


Data and narrative through the digital screen intertwine to create an operational metaphor of new orientations and new aesthetics, providing spaces of possibility for artists to explore new narratives of place and identity. I also believe that the progressive idea of technology places new media as a unique medium that is more conducive to being critical yet also participating within the dominant cultural systems of nationhood, cosmopolitanism, multiculturalism and globalization.



IV. Meta-Narratives and Meta-Histories through Data Manipulation


What distinguishes the visual language and aesthetic of new media narrative forms from previous, analog forms is not their underlying database, but rather, "their inherent possibility for the retrieval and filtering of data in multiple ways" (13), often relying on the participant/viewer to take part in generating meaning. Constructed through the collecting, storing and filtering of data using computational algorithms. meta-narratives of visual and textual language are constructed. The potential for inventive visual language in new media lie in the dynamic relationships between database and narrative and how they manifest themselves into new classifications of knowledge. It follows, that knowledge within new media depends on a database system in which its construction into narrative is the result of "the interplay between the container, the algorithm, and the interpretation of the user." (14) When considered in the light of cultural histories, meta-narratives create meta-histories with the potential of obscuring, even over-writing remnant histories of colonial determinism that continue to subsist through the guise of multiculturalism and globalization. However, as Paul prudently notes, database is not "value-free but inscribed with an interpretive angle" and so too, I take it to understand the meta-narratives that emerge from it. (15) Even so, I think there is immense liberation and subsequently much at stake here, both for artists and for citizens who occupy the cultural terrain of post-colonialism.


From art works that employ archival stores of data as their medium to manipulate using computer internet functions like search, to immersive spaces to form visual narratives that are relational and dynamic, new media artists in India are creating new spaces of possibility in which space and time are not configured to the confines of the physical but rather, to an immaterial, virtual realm through which singular works of identity and place emerge.


V. Case Studies


I have selected the following art works - two internet based works and one gallery installation - to illustrate how new media artists in India are using digital technologies to interrogate dominant systems of cultural and artistic discourse. What all of these art works share in common is their use of data, both visually and textually as a medium for creation and manipulation. The emergence of spaces of possibility come about through the juxtaposition of signs and language, producing anachronistic albeit ephemeral cultures that tell the stories that may not otherwise reveal themselves through hegemonic ontologies.


Mythic Hybrid

Artist credit: Prema Murthy, 2002

http://www.premamurthy.net/project_mythic.html


Fig. 1 - Opening page of Mythic Hybrid

Artist credit: Prema Murthy

Source: http://www.turbulence.org/Works/mythichybrid/index.html


In Mythic Hybrid, the boundlessness of virtual space and a-historical time inherent of the Internet are used to create a liminal territory in which to challenge gender and racial discriminatory politics. The work opens with a website's search page with the artwork’s title as the search term that generates a list of sub-headings which when clicked, opens onto both external links and internal links (of pages within the website itself) that include everything from news articles from an Asian Women Laborer newsletter to quotes from factory female workers centered between two digital video screens showing close-ups of machinery in sterile mechanical movements and various gestures of female workers building technological components like motherboards.


Fig. 2 - Screenshot of sub-category links after search term “mythic hybrid” is entered.

Artist credit: Prema Murthy

Source: http://www.turbulence.org/Works/mythichybrid/index.html



Fig. 3 –Webpage through sub-heading link “ASIAN WOMEN”

Artist credit: Prema Murthy

Source: http://www.turbulence.org/Works/mythichybrid/webpages/search_array.html#


In the work, the index searches launch text, graphic images and digital video juxtaposed together to form multiple, subjective narratives or what the artist, Prema Murthy, calls a "collective hallucination" of female factory workers in the climate of globalization.



Fig. 4 – Webpage through sub-heading link “Labour experiences”

Artist credit: Prema Murthy

Source: http://www.turbulence.org/Works/mythichybrid/webpages/search_array.html#

The artist describes the Internet as an empty container in which its potentiality resides in the way data is stored, accessed and manipulated. In an interview for Turbulence, Murthy states: "The Internet has an emptiness about it in the way I think the unconscious does. It is like a shell in which information is stored, deleted, retrieved, transfigured." (16) However, Murthy is critical of the internet as a space of possibility likening the information stored on the internet not only as a compository for "memories, obsessions, dreams, fears" but also as a space that is definitely not immune to discriminatory politics, subsequently recognizing that the internet is also a product of a racist, male-dominated, military-entertainment-industrial complex, which has undoubtedly left its mark on the medium.


Fig. 5 – Webpage through sub-heading link “In the act of being”

Artist credit: Prema Murthy

Source: http://www.turbulence.org/Works/mythichybrid/webpages/search_array.html#


Mythic Hybrid exposes the internal struggles of these female factory workers not to elicit our sympathy but to challenge us to consider the relationships between Third World oppressed labor and the technologies that are produced for global consumption. Here, the content and processes of the work's database are exposed both aesthetically and metaphorically to place the body of the female factory worker as a site to interrogate the globalized production and consumption of technology.


Fig. 6 – Webpage through sub-heading link “Capitalism”

Artist credit: Prema Murthy

Source: http://www.turbulence.org/Works/mythichybrid/webpages/search_array.html#


On the one hand, the images and text serve to create personal stories of female factory workers that verge between collective imagination and the real. On the other hand, the use of the ubiquitous search engine tool to access both internal and external information, reveals the functional and operational processes of Mythic Hybrid that subsequently compels us to consider the internet’s complicity in these women's struggles.


Global Village Health Manual

Artist Credits: Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective (Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula, Shuddhabrata Sengupta)

Designed and Produced at the Sarai Media Lab, 2000

http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/globalvillage/work/index2.htm


Global Village Health Manual is an interactive interface work on the internet that is composed of graphics based on reprints of 19th century Calcutta woodcuts. In this way, the work is presented as a retrospective of the health of the global village in the light of human technologies that include everything from human cloning to biometrics.



Fig. 7 – Opening page showing linked graphic icons based on 19th century Calcutta woodblocks

Artist credits: Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/globalvillage/work/index2.htm


The graphics are laid out on the opening page in the format of icons that when clicked on brings up news articles, reports and a miscellany of pages culled from the internet. While the work is accessed through the internet, the data that is presented is not generated live but is contained within the website itself as a static directory of images and text. Furthermore, network access means audiences from all over the world can enter the work in alternative positions and not strictly from sanctioned and dominant cultural positions such as nationhood or ethnicity but from a singular agency that enables a personal experience of the work's narrative.


Fig. 8 – Webpage through a graphic icon link

Artist credits: Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/globalvillage/work/pad_a1.htm


The work asks us to consider the ramifications of these technologies on the health of our "global village", by setting up a controlled meta-narrative that sets up narrative events composed of predetermined text and images. Because of the static nature of the pages and the closed system of the website from the internet, we are compelled to make logical consequences of these narrative events.


Fig. 9 – Webpage through a graphic icon link

Artist credits: Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/globalvillage/work/h32b.htm


Perhaps most compelling about this work is how artists can apply a website's search function and networked access to create a space of possibility using the non-linearity and concept of a non-time of the internet. Despite not linking to other sites on the internet, the work has the appearance and verisimilitude of being 'live'. I see this as an intervention into clock time in which 'old' data is presented as live and current.


Fig. 10 – Webpage through a graphic icon link

Artist credits: Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/globalvillage/work/Embryo%201.htm


What happens when in 50 years time, we go to the internet and locate this site, would we still consider the images and text in this work as describing the 'now' and if so, what consequences does this aesthetic and operational disguise of the past have on our sense of historical time? While I don't confess to know this answer asked in the future, I do believe that currently, this has a way of reframing cultural signs in history, be it those that reference place or identity, that may otherwise be considered buried deep, ossified in cultural bedrock, to that of existing just beneath the surface and therefore free to break through into the contemporary.


Fig. 11 – Webpage through consecutive links “implanted in the cortex” and “intra-skull pressure”

Artist credits: Mrityunjay Chatterjee and Raqs Media Collective

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/globalvillage/work/Embryo%204.htm


For artists from Third World economies, the intervention into clock time, is a powerful strategy to use in order to subvert cultural ideologies of place and identity produced through historical structuralism. While I don't know if the artists had this intention in this particular work, I do consider the transformation of traditional Indian woodcut motifs into a digital, immaterial medium of the internet to be particularly indicative of the work's critical eye towards how technology prefigures into India's own historicity.


Co-ordinates 28.8N 77.15E

Artist credits: Raqs Media Collective (Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula. Shuddhabrata Sengupta)

Video Editing: Parvati Sharma

Sound Design: Vipin Bhati

Print Design: Pradip Saha

Research Assistance: Diya Mehra

Produced and designed at Sarai Media Lab, 2002

http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/coordinates1.html


I conclude this section with a work that uses projected imagery, soundscape, slide projection and print elements (broadsheet, floor mat and stickers) to create an immersive space within a gallery. Co-ordinates 288N 77.15E creates a space of possibility where we are invited to re-imagine time and place of Delhi through a set of latitude and longitudinal measurements within the years 2001 and 2002. As the artists describe on their website: “the syntax of space-time co-ordinates also connects the city as a location to the abstractions of other spaces and times”.


Fig. 12 – One of four image projections inside the gallery space, The Roomade Office for Contemporary Art, Brussels (March-June 2003)

Artist credits: Raqs Media Collective (Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula. Shuddhabrata Sengupta)

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/coordinates1.html#laws


The work conceives of the city as units of dislocated time and invites the viewer/participant to embody the feeling of the city through the intermingling of senses of sights and sounds.



Fig. 13 – One of four image projections inside the gallery space, The Roomade Office for Contemporary Art, Brussels (March-June 2003)

Artist credits: Raqs Media Collective (Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula. Shuddhabrata Sengupta)

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/coordinates1.html#laws




Fig. 14 – An image projection inside the gallery space, The Roomade Office for Contemporary Art, Brussels (March-June 2003)

Artist credits: Raqs Media Collective (Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula. Shuddhabrata Sengupta)

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/coordinates1.html#laws


The array of images, text and sounds point to what the artists describe as an intermix of experience that "connects the city as a location to the abstractions of other spaces and times."


Fig. 15 – Projected text of a government statement about the “Emergency” declared on June 25, 1975 that suspended civil rights in India at The Roomade Office for Contemporary Art, Brussels (March-June 2003)

Artist credits: Raqs Media Collective (Jeebesh Bagchi, Monica Narula. Shuddhabrata Sengupta)

Source: http://www.raqsmediacollective.net/coordinates1.html#laws


Through the use of multiple frames of visual data presented simultaneously and at different intervals, the work ultimately creates a multiple linearity of time-space narratives. As a participant journeys through this projected image space these floating narratives of Delhi become an oscillation between the real and the imaginary.


VI. CONCLUSION

By employing data manipulation and processing as an operational metaphor, new media narratives possess the potential to expose and infiltrate structuralist and dominant systems of ontology. Culture as image and text is broken down to the bits and bytes of data, which are reconfigured to create these spaces of possibility through which artists employ various strategies of dislocation for prototypical cultures and thought to emerge.


For artists of postcolonial nations that live and work under a dominant system that still insists on exotifying the "Other" postcolonial subject, albeit obliquely in the guise of neoliberalism and multiculturalism, I think this opportunity is profound. I believe the spatial and temporal dislocations that are enacted through interventionist strategies are an opportunity for artists such as those in India to transcend time/history and place/geography to in effect, create complex, singular narratives of place and identity that contribute to a critical dialogue of Third World cultural production amidst a globalized art market.





Footnotes


1. See Rasheed Araeen, "A New Beginning - Beyond Postcolonial Cultural Theory and Identity Politics" in Third Text - Third World Perspectives on Contemporary Art and Culture (London, England: Routledge, 2000), 6.

2. Rasheed Araeen, "A New Beginning - Beyond Postcolonial Cultural Theory and Identity Politics" in Third Text - Third World Perspectives on Contemporary Art and Culture (London, England: Routledge, 2000)

3. Ajay. J. Sinha, “Contemporary Indian Art: A Question of Method.” (1999), http://www.jstor.org (accessed on 1/10/06). Originally published in Art Journal vol. 58, no.3 (College Art Association 1999), 33.

4. Ajay J. Sinha, “Contemporary Indian Art: A Question of Method.” (1999), http://www.jstor.org/pss/777858 (accessed on 1/10/06). Originally published in Art Journal vol. 58, no.3 (College Art Association 1999), 32.

5. Steve Dietz, "The Database Imaginary: Memory_Archive_Database" in Database Aesthetics: Art in the Age of Information Overflow, edited by Victoria Vesna (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 111.

6. PCMAG.com Encyclopedia, http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=hack&i=44046,00.asp (accessed on 1/10/06).

7. Christiane Paul, "“The Database as System and Cultural Form: Anatomies of Cultural Narratives” in Database Aesthetics. Art in the Age of Information Overflow, edited by Victoria Vesna (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 98 - 99.

8. Steve Dietz, "The Database Imaginary: Memory_Archive_Database" in Database Aesthetics: Art in the Age of Information Overflow, edited by Victoria Vesna (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 111.

9. David N. Rodowick, Gilles Deleuze's Time Machine (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1997). 6.

10. David N. Rodowick, Gilles Deleuze's Time Machine (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1997). 14.

11. David N. Rodowick, Gilles Deleuze's Time Machine (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1997). 7.

12. David N. Rodowick, Gilles Deleuze's Time Machine (Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1997). 7.

13. Christiane Paul, "“The Database as System and Cultural Form: Anatomies of Cultural Narratives” in Database Aesthetics. Art in the Age of Information Overflow, edited by Victoria Vesna (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 98 - 96.

14. Christiane Paul, "“The Database as System and Cultural Form: Anatomies of Cultural Narratives” in Database Aesthetics. Art in the Age of Information Overflow, edited by Victoria Vesna (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 98 - 105.

15. Christiane Paul, "“The Database as System and Cultural Form: Anatomies of Cultural Narratives” in Database Aesthetics. Art in the Age of Information Overflow, edited by Victoria Vesna (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 98 - 104.

16. Refer to Diane Ludin, “Interview with Prema Murthy on ‘Mythic Hybrid’.” (January 16, 2003), http://amsterdam.nettime.org/Lists-Archives/nettime-l-0301/msg00065.html (accessed on 1/10/06). Originally interviewed for Turbulence in thing.reviews and distributed via nettime.org.